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        Java is an object-oriented programming language with millions of users across the globe. It is well-known for being a platform-independent language and a computing platform. Java is a widely used object-oriented programming language and software platform that runs on billions of devices, including notebook computers, mobile devices, gaming consoles, medical devices and many others. The rules and syntax of Java are based on the C and C++ languages.

        Java, having been developed in 1991, is a relatively new programming language. At that time, James Gosling from Sun Microsystems and his team began designing the first version of Java aimed at programming home appliances which are controlled by a wide variety of computer.
        Java was originally designed for interactive television, but it was too advanced for the digital cable television industry at the time. The language was initially called Oak after an oak tree that stood outside Gosling's office. Later the project went by the name Green and was finally renamed Java, from Java coffee. Gosling designed Java with a C/C++-style syntax that system and application programmers would find familiar.

Features of java Technology

  • Simple
  • Objected Orinted
  • Distributed
  • Multithreaded
  • Daynamic
  • Architecture neutral
  • Portable and High Performance
  • Robust
  • Secure

  • Java Key Technology

    Java is simle : Java base is similar to that of C and C++ languages and it includes many important features of these languages. It removes many drawbacks and complexities of C or C++. So if one has good understanding of either C or C++, then Java language will be very familiar and easily understandable.

    Java is an object oriented : Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is an approach to standardize the programs by creating partitioned memory area for both data and function. The approach was developed to increase programmer’s productivity and also to overcome the traditional approach of programming. Like Objects, Class, Data Abstraction, Encapsulation, Data Hiding, Inheritance and Polymorphism.

    Java programs are both compiled and interpreted : It is normal for a computer language to either be compiled or interpreted during execution. But Java language is an exception as its programs are both compiled and interpreted. The Java Compiler (JAVAC) compiles the java source code and converts it into the bytecode. The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) then executes this bytecode and converts it into machine-dependent form.

    Java programs are platform independent : This is the most significant feature of Java, as being platform independent means one program compiled on one machine can get executed on any other machines without changing anything. This is achieved because of the BYTE code concept. As mentioned before, the JAVAC compiles the java source code and converts it into the bytecode. It doesn’t convert the source code into machine code like that of the C/C++ compiler. This bytecode is further converted into machine-dependent form by another software called JVM. This JVM can execute bytecode on any platform, regardless of the original machine bytecode.

    Java is an Interactive language : Why Java is considered to be Interactive? Because Character User Interface (CUI) and Graphical User Interface (GUI) both are supported by Java. The interactive performance of graphical applications increases while using Java. Example of such a software where Java based designing is used is Android Studio.

    Java is a multithreaded : A thread is an independent path taken while a program is being executed. Multithreaded means handling multiple paths or tasks simultaneously of the same program. Due to multithreading, maximum resource utilization can be done. All these different threads share the same memory space. Thus performance of complicated applications is boosted.

    Java High performance Language : Being a language which is both compiled and interpreted, Java is faster than many traditional interpreted programming languages. This is because the Java bytecode is very close to the native code. Although, Java is still a bit slower than other compiled languages like C++. To understand this, let’s look at what Interpreter and Compiler means.

    Security : Java Programming language is more secured than C or C ++ language, as one can’t explicitly create pointers in Java as compared to C or C++. Thus one can’t gain access to a particular variable if it is not initialized properly. Java also supports access modifiers, which can check memory access and also prevent viruses from entering an applet.

    Robust : Java is capable of handling runtime errors, has a strong memory management system. It helps in eliminating errors in code during compilation time and runtime. Java falls under garbage collected language category, as the JVM automatically de-allocates the memory blocks unlike that of C or C++.

    Dynamic and Extensible : Dynamic and extensible means one can add classes and add new methods to classes with the help of Object Oriented Programming. This is available in JAVA. It makes easier for programmers to expand their own classes and ever modify them. Java is highly dynamic in nature as it can adapt to its evolving environment.

    Distributed : Java is considered to be distributed as it encourages users to create distributed applications. A distributed application consists of at least one local or remote clients who communicates using at least one server on several machines linked through a network. With the help of such an application, one can conduct business operations from anywhere in the world. A programmer sitting on one machine can access a program which is running on another machine from any geographical location.

    Java working flow process

    In the Java programming language, all source code is first written in plain text files ending with the .java extension. Those source files are then compiled into .class files by the javac compiler. A .class file does not contain code that is native to your processor; it instead contains bytecodes — the machine language of the Java Virtual Machine (Java VM). The java launcher tool then runs your application with an instance of the Java Virtual Machine.<>

    An overview of the software development process.

    The Java VM is available on many different operating systems, the same .class files are capable of running on Microsoft Windows, the Solaris™ Operating System (Solaris OS), Linux, or Mac OS.

    The Java Paltform

    A platform is the hardware or software environment in which a program runs. We've already mentioned some of the most popular platforms like Microsoft Windows, Linux, Solaris OS, and Mac OS. Most platforms can be described as a combination of the operating system and underlying hardware. The Java platform differs from most other platforms in that it's a software-only platform that runs on top of other hardware-based platforms.

    The Java platform has two components:

    • The Java Virtual Machine
    • The& Java Application Programming Interface (API)

    The API is a large collection of ready-made software components that provide many useful capabilities. It is grouped into libraries of related classes and interfaces; these libraries are known as packages. The API and Java Virtual Machine insulate the program from the underlying hardware.

    As a platform-independent environment, the Java platform can be a bit slower than native code. However, advances in compiler and virtual machine technologies are bringing performance close to that of native code without threatening portability.

    What Can Java Technology Do?

    The general-purpose, high-level Java programming language is a powerful software platform. Every full implementation of the Java platform gives you the following features:

    Development Tools: The development tools provide everything you'll need for compiling, running, monitoring, debugging, and documenting your applications. As a new developer, the main tools you'll be using are the javac compiler, the java launcher, and the javadoc documentation tool.

    Application Programming Interface (API): The API provides the core functionality of the Java programming language. It offers a wide array of useful classes ready for use in your own applications. It spans everything from basic objects, to networking and security, to XML generation and database access, and more

    Deployment Technologies: The JDK software provides standard mechanisms such as the Java Web Start software and Java Plug-In software for deploying your applications to end users.

    User Interface Toolkits: The JavaFX, Swing, and Java 2D toolkits make it possible to create sophisticated Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs).

    Integration Libraries: Integration libraries such as the Java IDL API, JDBC API, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) API, Java RMI, and Java Remote Method Invocation over Internet Inter-ORB Protocol Technology (Java RMI-IIOP Technology) enable database access and manipulation of remote objects.

    How Will Java Technology Change My Life?

            We can't promise you fame, fortune, or even a job if you learn the Java programming language. Still, it is likely to make your programs better and requires less effort than other languages. We believe that Java technology will help you do the following:

    • Get started quickly: Although the Java programming language is a powerful object-oriented language, it's easy to learn, especially for programmers already familiar with C or C++.
    • Write less code: Comparisons of program metrics (class counts, method counts, and so on) suggest that a program written in the Java programming language can be four times smaller than the same program written in C++.
    • Write better code: The Java programming language encourages good coding practices, and automatic garbage collection helps you avoid memory leaks. Its object orientation, its JavaBeans™ component architecture, and its wide-ranging, easily extendible API let you reuse existing, tested code and introduce fewer bugs.
    • Develop programs more quickly: The Java programming language is simpler than C++, and as such, your development time could be up to twice as fast when writing in it. Your programs will also require fewer lines of code.
    • Avoid platform dependencies: You can keep your program portable by avoiding the use of libraries written in other languages.
    • Write once, run anywhere: Because applications written in the Java programming language are compiled into machine-independent bytecodes, they run consistently on any Java platform.
    • Distribute software more easily: With Java Web Start software, users will be able to launch your applications with a single click of the mouse. An automatic version check at startup ensures that users are always up to date with the latest version of your software. If an update is available, the Java Web Start software will automatically update their installation.

    Where is Java used

    There are many devices where Java is currently used. Some of them are as follows:

    • Desktop Applications
    • Web Applications 
    • Mobile 
    • Embedded System 
    • Robotics 
    • Games etc. 

    Types of Java Applications 

            Application programs  : Application programs are stand-alone programs that are written to carry out certain tasks on local computer such as solving equations, reading and writing files etc. 

            Applet Programs : Applets are small Java programs developed for Internet applications. An applet located in a distant computer can be downloaded via the Internet and executed on a local computer using Java-capable browser.

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